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Information Services and Library: Citing and referencing

LibGuides from the London Business School Information Services and Library Team.

Citing and Referencing - The basics

What is plagiarism?

Plagiarism is a form of intellectual theft. It is presenting the thoughts or words of another (intentionally or not) as if they were your own. It includes:

  • presenting the work of another student
  • submitting collaborative work unless this is specifically permitted
  • submitting the same piece of work for two different assignments (even if they are for different departments or courses)
  • copying sections of another's work but changing the odd word or phrase (i.e. selective or poor paraphrasing)

Avoiding plagiarism

To avoid plagiarism be methodical:

  • record all sources consulted.
  • take thorough notes. Record the details: title, author, date, editon, pages
  • record the full details (urls and dates accessed) of the material accessed on the web. 
  • learn to paraphrase correctly and allow time to incorparate accurate references in your essays

Many of the subscribed databases will output records in your chosen citation style.

Electronic reference management software

A range of reference management software products is available. They enable you to efficiently:

  • save, organise and share bibliographic records
  • import records directly from your database searches
  • choose or swap referencing styles (Harvard, NLA, MLA etc.)

EndNote for  PhDs - The School has a site licence to use Endnote desktop for those Faculty or PhDs who request it. Contact the Library for further information 

Endnote for Students. To get the full productivity value of EndNote, you need both the personal database “library” in the cloud, to which you can upload full-text of a bibliographic reference and also to have installed the Endnote “Cite While You Write” Word add-in. It’s all free but you must register via Web of Science’s EndNote option to pick up the LBS institutional entitlement. 

Zotero - The library also recommend the use of Zotero as it is free and you can continue using the resource after you have left LBS. Please check the calendar for Zotero training sessions the library will be regularly delivering at the Sammy Ofer Centre.

Free reference management software

Mendeley - Free,  but more popular among scientists.
Zotero - Free, open source software. 
Working in tandem with Zotero you could try Notehound  a tool that helps you collect your highlighted text from PDFs or  Kindle books and integrate them fully cited into your work. 

Reference - to avoid plagiarism

Proper referencing helps avoid plagiarism by acknowledging the materials and authors you have read, referred to or quoted in your writing. 

  • citing - where you refer to the source in the body of your writing.
  • referencing/list of references - the alphabetic list (in author order) at the end of your writing providing full details of the sources consulted.
  • bibliography - a list of all the sources consulted - used or not

You must reference all written materials whether or not formally published. This includes (but is not limited to): websites, e-mails, tweets, blogs, discussion lists, databases. You need to reference in order to:

  • illustrate a point or support an argument
  • demonstrate the breadth of your research
  • ensure that your reader can refer back to the materials used

You do not need to reference “common knowledge” i.e. facts that you may readily assume that your readership will know, or take as commonly accepted. See this clarification of common knowledge.

Academic Study and Writing Skills Collection
There is a print collection in the Library that can help students with reading, writing, researching and citing. For detailed help with referencing we recommend:  
Cite them right: the Essential Referencing Guide.  9th ed. Pears, R and Shields G.

How to Reference - in the Harvard Style

Reference list and/or bibliography

A reference list is a list of the citations that have appeared in the body of your work.
bibliography lists all the sources you consulted while researching, whether they were used or not. 

These terms are often used interchangeably - ask your tutor if you need to provide a bibliography as well as a reference list.  

Direct quotes

Short direct quotes (i.e.i using the author's exact words taken from the text) should be place in quotation “ “ marks and cited in the text with a page number.

In text:
Handy (2007, p.22) concludes that: “Cultural confusion therefore is one of the principal ills that plague organizations.” This can be said to be the..

Longer quotations should be separated from the body of your text and indented from the left-hand margin. When indented there is no need to include quotation marks. 

Several authors making the same point

If you are presenting a point and a number of authors express the same of similar views, include them all in one set of brackets in publication date order. List any works published in the same year in alphabetical order.

In text:
Opinion was the restructuring failed. (Brown 2012; Khan 2012; Lee 2013.)

Two or more works by the same author published in the same year

If you have two or more works by the same author published in the same year use a, b, etc to differentiate.

In text:
In her study on negotiation, Chang (2013a) emphasised the importance of speaking first, and developed this idea further (Chang, 2006b) to prove that…

N.B. the author name can be presented outside or inside the brackets to best fit in with the form of expression, as long as the source is clear. So either Chang (2013) or (Chang 2013).

Secondary sources

A secondary source is one author citing the work of another.You should try to read the original source but if you cannot then refer to the author whose work you have not read and add: 'cited by' then give the in text citation to the book you have read in the usual way.

In text:
Blake (2007) support the contrary view cited by Clark (2012. p. 26.)

Reference list:
Clark,J (2012). The life and death of Marlow. London: Ingram Publishing

Book with one author

In text:
There are two primary systems of decisions making according to Kahneman (2011,p.18) the fast, intuitive system that..

List of references:
Kahneman, D (2011) Thinking Fast and Slow. 2nd ed. London: Penguin Books.

N.B. Edition number. Only add this if it is NOT the first edition.


Corporate or organisation as author

An author can be an organisation or a government department or International agency; may be known as a ‘corporate author’.

In text:
There are gender differences in term of happiness. (The Children’s Society, 2012).

Liat of references:
The Children’s Society, 2012, The Good Childhood Report. London: The Children’s Society. Available at: [Accessed 16 July 2015]


Book chapter in an edited book

Cite the author of the chapter and give further details of the work in which it occurs in your reference list.

In text:
While explaining the growth of ecotourism (Cater, 2013) challenges the ..

List of references – just add (ed. or eds) after the name:
Cater,C (2013). Naturebites back: impacts of the environment on tourism. In: Holden,A and Fennell,D. (eds)The Routledge handbook of tourism and the environment. London: Routledge. 

Books with multiple authors

Books with 2 or 3 authors

In text:
In describing multi-domestic enterprises Bartlett and Ghoshal (2002) maintain that…

List of references:
Bartlett, C and Ghoshal, S. (1998) Managing Across BordersThe Transnational Solution. 2nd ed. London: Random House.

Three or more authors - Include the surname of the first author in your text citation, then write et al. Remember to list all authors in your reference list at the end of your work.


In text:
It describes the failure of companies to capitalize on their innovations, (Markides 2005) paving the way for ...

List of references:
Markides, C and Geroski, P, (2005) Fast second: how smart companies bypass radical innovation to enter and dominate new markets. DawsonEra [Online]. Available at: (Accessed: 15 July 2015). 

Market research reports – print & online

In text:
Sales of energy drinks saw a marked increase in 2013 (Keynote, 2014 p46).

List of references - print report:
KeyNote (2014) Soft Drinks KeyNote Market Report. Richmond upon Thames: KeyNote.
Format: Author/Organisation. (Year) Title. Place of publication: Publisher.  (Here the author and the publisher are the same.)

Company annual reports

The company has changed it approach to reporting (Tesco 2015) to ensure that...

List of references:
Tesco Annual Report and Financial Statements 2015 [Online] available from: [Accessed 20 September 2015]

In text citation:  as if a book.
List of references:
Dimson, E. (1980) Efficiency of the British new issue market for ordinary shares. PhD Thesis, London University.


In his definition of creativity Sonnenbeg (1991) attempts to…

N.B. If the author’s name is part of the sentence you can just put the date of the work in brackets. Otherwise use (Sonnenbeg, 1991)

List of references: 
Journal in an online database

Sonnenberg, F. (1991) Strategies for Creativity.Journal of Business Strategy. [Online] Emerald database 12.(1) pp.50-53. Available from: [Accessed 15th July 2015].

List of references:
Print journal source

Sonnenberg, F. (1991) Strategies for Creativity. Journal of Business Strategy. 12.(1) pp.50-53 

N.B. 12 is the volume numbers and 1 is the issue number. Put the issue number – if there is one – in brackets. Use pp to indicate a run of pages. 


Maitland (2015) explains how shiftworking is detrimental to health.

List of references:

Mailtlan, S (2015) Night shifts are bad for us – even human versatility has its limits. The Guardian. [Online] 21st January. p.11. Available from:  [Accessed: 20th July 2015]

Maitlan, S., 2015. Night shifts are bad for us – even human versatility has its limits. The Guardian, 21st January, p11



Despite losing 30% of its value as reported by CNN (2015) the Chinese markets are...

List of references:
CNN Money (2015) Fears over China's market crash are overblown [Online] Available from: [Acessed: 20th July 2015]

Lecture notes

The charm's characteristics vary considerably. (Dumbledore 2011)

List of references:
Dumbledore, A. (2011). Week 6: The uses and abuses of Patronus charms. Advanced Charms Module. [Online]. Available from:
courserooms/admin/ Q AUT15.  [Accessed 20 July 2015] 

These are not ideal sources but if you have to use personal communication such as email, text, Skype or  personal conversation then you need to give: the name of the person, year, medium of communication, receiver of the communication and date of communication.

In text:
The location was confirmed by Wolf (2017) 

List of references:
Wolf, V (2017)  conversation with Clive Bell 2nd March.


If you are writing a personal response or a reflective piece then writing from your personal experience may be encouraged.
However the purpose of academic writing is to draw on your knowledge of previous research and the foundations of knowledge of the discipline. In general  you should provide sources for specialized knowledge or data. You should use the Library databases such as: Summon, Google Scholar (in Portal) and Scopus to explore topics in detail.

You can always ask the library for research help:

If you are including others people's images in your writing then these need to be referenced. Images you use may fall into two categories: tables and figures. Tables are data or words presented in tables or columns. Figures would include the rest: photos, drawings, charts, graphs, etc. 
It is usual practices to number the tables and images in the order that they are incorporated in you writing: Figure 1, Figure 2,... Table 1, Table 2...

The image may well incorporate a title (for example if is a graph). Give the image/table a number, caption (ie description).

The In-text citation must include the author and date OR author, date and figure number.
The Reference List should include the author, date of publication, Title, Publisher, Place of publication, viewed date and <URL>


For a case purchased for your class and accessed via Canvas:


Year of Publication

Case study title (in italics)

Case study number

Where it was published: Publisher

In text

Early on, Sir Alex Ferguson introduced a new disciplinary code when he was appointed Manchester United manager (‚ÄčElberse & Dye, 2012).

Reference list

Elberse, A., & Dye, T. (2012) Sir Alex Ferguson: Managing Manchester United. HBS No. 9-513-051. Boston: Harvard Business School Publishing.


Other cases may be found in book chapters, journal articles, or websites. In which case cite them as you would for these formats.


Note: Please check the Assessment Brief or ask yourself if the case study needs to be cited before you start doing so.

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Citing and writing to avoid plagiarism